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Interactive Computer Graphics With WebGL

by Angel, Edward, Shreiner, Dave

  • ISBN: 9780133574845
  • ISBN10: 0133574849

Interactive Computer Graphics With WebGL

by Angel, Edward, Shreiner, Dave

  • Binding: Paperback
  • Edition: 7
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publish date: 03/07/2014
  • ISBN: 9780133574845
  • ISBN10: 0133574849
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Description: CHAPTER 1 GRAPHICS SYSTEMS AND MODELS 1 1.1 Applications of Computer Graphics 2 1.1.1 Display of Information 2 1.1.2 Design 3 1.1.3 Simulation and Animation 3 1.1.4 User Interfaces 4 1.2 A Graphics System 5 1.2.1 Pixels and the Framebuffer 5 1.2.2 The CPU and the GPU 6 1.2.3 Output Devices 7 1.2.4 Input Devices 9 1.3 Images: Physical and Synthetic 10 1.3.1 Objects and Viewers 10 1.3.2 Light and Images 12 1.3.3 Imaging Models 13 1.4 Imaging Systems 15 1.4.1 The Pinhole Camera 15 1.4.2 The Human Visual System 17 1.5 The Synthetic-Camera Model 18 1.6 The Programmer''s Interface 20 1.6.1 The Pen-Plotter Model 21 1.6.2 Three-Dimensional APIs 23 1.6.3 A Sequence of Images 26 1.6.4 The Modeling--Rendering Paradigm 27 1.7 Graphics Architectures 28 1.7.1 Display Processors 29 1.7.2 Pipeline Architectures 29 1.7.3 The Graphics Pipeline 30 1.7.4 Vertex Processing 31 1.7.5 Clipping and Primitive Assembly 31 1.7.6 Rasterization 32 1.7.7 Fragment Processing 32 1.8 Programmable Pipelines 32 1.9 Performance Characteristics 33 1.10 OpenGL Versions and WebGL 34 Summary and Notes 36 Suggested Readings 36 Exercises 37 CHAPTER 2 GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING 39 2.1 The Sierpinski Gasket 39 2.2 Programming Two-Dimensional Applications 42 2.3 The WebGL Application Programming Interface 47 2.3.1 Graphics Functions 47 2.3.2 The Graphics Pipeline and State Machines 49 2.3.3 OpenGL and WebGL 50 2.3.4 The WebGL Interface 50 2.3.5 Coordinate Systems 51 2.4 Primitives and Attributes 53 2.4.1 Polygon Basics 55 2.4.2 Polygons in WebGL 56 2.4.3 Approximating a Sphere 57 2.4.4 Triangulation 58 2.4.5 Text 59 2.4.6 Curved Objects 60 2.4.7 Attributes 61 2.5 Color 62 2.5.1 RGB Color 64 2.5.2 Indexed Color 66 2.5.3 Setting of Color Attributes 67 2.6 Viewing 68 2.6.1 The Orthographic View 68 2.6.2 Two-Dimensional Viewing 71 2.7 Control Functions 71 2.7.1 Interaction with the Window System 72 2.7.2 Aspect Ratio and Viewports 73 2.7.3 Application Organization 74 2.8 The Gasket Program 75 2.8.1 Sending Data to the GPU 78 2.8.2 Rendering the Points 78 2.8.3 The Vertex Shader 79 2.8.4 The Fragment Shader 80 2.8.5 Combining the Parts 80 2.8.6 The initShaders Function 81 2.8.7 The init Function 82 2.8.8 Reading the Shaders from the Application 83 2.9 Polygons and Recursion 83 2.10 The Three-Dimensional Gasket 86 2.10.1 Use of Three-Dimensional Points 86 2.10.2 Naming Conventions 88 2.10.3 Use of Polygons in Three Dimensions 88 2.10.4 Hidden-Surface Removal 91 Summary and Notes 93 Suggested Readings 94 Exercises 95 CHAPTER 3 INTERACTION AND ANIMATION 99 3.1 Animation 99 3.1.1 The Rotating Square 100 3.1.2 The Display Process 102 3.1.3 Double Buffering 103 3.1.4 Using a Timer 104 3.1.5 Using setAnimFrame 105 3.2 Interaction 106 3.3 Input Devices 107 3.4 Physical Input Devices 108 3.4.1 Keyboard Codes 108 3.4.2 The Light Pen 109 3.4.3 The Mouse and the Trackball 109 3.4.4 Data Tablets,Touch Pads, and Touch Screens 110 3.4.5 The Joystick 111 3.4.6 Multidimensional Input Devices 111 3.4.7 Logical Devices 112 3.4.8 Input Modes 113 3.5 Clients and Servers 115 3.6 Programming Event-Driven Input 116 3.6.1 Events and Event Listeners 117 3.6.2 Adding a Button 117 3.6.3 Menus 119 3.6.4 Using Keycodes 120 3.6.5 Sliders 121 3.7 Position Input 122 3.8 Window Events 123 3.9 Picking 125 3.10 Building Models Interactively 126 3.11 Design of Interactive Programs 130 Summary and Notes 130 Suggested Readings 131 Exercises 132 CHAPTER 4 GEOMETRIC OBJECTS AND TRANSFORMATIONS 135 4.1 Scalars, Points, and Vectors 136 4.1.1 Geometric Objects 136 4.1.2 Coordinate-Free Geometry 138 4.1.3 The Mathematical View: Vector and Affine Spaces 138 4.1.4 The Computer Science View 139 4.1.5 Geometric ADTs 140 4.1.6 Lines 141 4.1.7 Affine Sums 141 4.1.8 Convexity 142 4.1.9 Dot and Cross Products 142 4.1.10 Planes 143 4.2 Three-Dimensional Primitives 145 4.3 Coordinate Systems and Frames 146 4.3.1 Representations and N-Tuples 148 4.3.2 Change of Coordinate Systems 149 4.3.3 Example: Change of Representation 151 4.3.4 Homogeneous Coordinates 153 4.3.5 Example: Change in Frames 155 4.3.6 Working with Representations 157 4.4 Frames in WebGL 159 4.5 Matrix and Vector Types 163 4.5.1 Row versus Column Major Matrix Representations 165 4.6 Modeling a Colored Cube 165 4.6.1 Modeling the Faces 166 4.6.2 Inward- and Outward-Pointing Faces 167 4.6.3 Data Structures for Object Representation 167 4.6.4 The Colored Cube 168 4.6.5 Color Interpolation 170 4.6.6 Displaying the Cube 170 4.6.7 Drawing with Elements 171 4.7 Affine Transformations 172 4.8 Translation, Rotation, and Scaling 175 4.8.1 Translation 175 4.8.2 Rotation 176 4.8.3 Scaling 177 4.9 Transformations in Homogeneous Coordinates 179 4.9.1 Translation 179 4.9.2 Scaling 181 4.9.3 Rotation 181 4.9.4 Shear 183 4.10 Concatenation of Transformations 184 4.10.1 Rotation About a Fixed Point 185 4.10.2 General Rotation 186 4.10.3 The Instance Transformation 187 4.10.4 Rotation About an Arbitrary Axis 188 4.11 Transformation Matrices in WebGL 191 4.11.1 Current Transformation Matrices 192 4.11.2 Basic Matrix Functions 193 4.11.3 Rotation, Translation, and Scaling 194 4.11.4 Rotation About a Fixed Point 195 4.11.5 Order of Transformations 195 4.12 Spinning of the Cube 196 4.12.1 Uniform Matrices 198 4.13 Interfaces to Three-Dimensional Applications 200 4.13.1 Using Areas of the Screen 201 4.13.2 A Virtual Trackball 201 4.13.3 Smooth Rotations 204 4.13.4 Incremental Rotation 205 4.14 Quaternions 206 4.14.1 Complex Numbers and Quaternions 206 4.14.2 Quaternions and Rotation 207 4.14.3 Quaternions and Gimbal Lock 209 Summary and Notes 210 Suggested Readings 211 Exercises 211 CHAPTER 5 VIEWING 215 5.1 Classical and Computer Viewing 215 5.1.1 Classical Viewing 217 5.1.2 Orthographic Projections 217 5.1.3 Axonometric Projections 218 5.1.4 Oblique Projections 220 5.1.5 Perspective Viewing 221 5.2 Viewing with a Computer 222 5.3 Positioning of the Camera 224 5.3.1 Positioning of the Camera Frame 224 5.3.2 Two Viewing APIs 229 5.3.3 The Look-At Function 232 5.3.4 Other Viewing APIs 233 5.4 Parallel Projections 234 5.4.1 Orthogonal Projections 234 5.4.2 Parallel Viewing with WebGL 235 5.4.3 Projection Normalization 236 5.4.4 Orthogonal Projection Matrices 237 5.4.5 Oblique Projections 239 5.4.6 An Interactive Viewer 242 5.5 Perspective Projections 244 5.5.1 Simple Perspective Projections 245 5.6 Perspective Projections with WebGL 248 5.6.1 Perspective Functions 249 5.7 Perspective Projection Matrices 250 5.7.1 Perspective Normalization 250 5.7.2 WebGL Perspective Transformations 254 5.7.3 Perspective Example 256 5.8 Hidden-Surface Removal 256 5.8.1 Culling 258 5.9 Displaying Meshes 259 5.9.1 Displaying Meshes as Surfaces 262 5.9.2 Polygon Offset 264 5.9.3 Walking through a Scene 265 5.10 Projections and Shadows 265 5.10.1 Projected Shadows 266 5.11 Shadow Maps 270 Summary and Notes 271 Suggested Readings 272 Exercises 272 CHAPTER 6 LIGHTING AND SHADING 275 6.1 Light and Matter 276 6.2 Light Sources 279 6.2.1 Color Sources 280 6.2.2 Ambient Light 280 6.2.3 Point Sources 281 6.2.4 Spotlights 282 6.2.5 Distant Light Sources 282 6.3 The Phong Reflection Model 283 6.3.1 Ambient Reflection 285 6.3.2 Diffuse Reflection 285 6.3.3 Specular Reflection 286 6.3.4 The Modified Phong Model 288 6.4 Computation of Vectors 289 6.4.1 Normal Vectors 289 6.4.2 Angle of Reflection 292 6.5 Polygonal Shading 293 6.5.1 Flat Shading 293 6.5.2 Smooth and Gouraud Shading 294 6.5.3 Phong Shading 296 6.6 Approximation of a Sphere by Recursive Subdivision 297 6.7 Specifying Lighting Parameters 299 6.7.1 Light Sources 299 6.7.2 Materials 301 6.8 Implementing a Lighting Model 301 6.8.1 Applying the Lighting Model in the Application 302 6.8.2 Efficiency 304 6.8.3 Lighting in the Vertex Shader 305 6.9 Shading of the Sphere Model 310 6.10 Per-Fragment Lighting 311 6.11 Nonphotorealistic Shading 313 6.12 Global Illumination 314 Summary and Notes 315 Suggested Readings 316 Exercises 316 CHAPTER 7 DISCRETE TECHNIQUES 319 7.1 Buffers 320 7.2 Digital Images 321 7.3 Mapping Methods 325 7.4 Two-Dimensional Texture Mapping 327 7.5 Texture Mapping in WebGL
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